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An integrated approach to non-network clean coal energy
    In the monopoly power of the Russian Federation CHP coal were built in the Soviet Union and obsolete before their commissioning. All energy supplies energy to a single network. No network - no civilization, but where is the energy production on coal - environmental concerns grow rapidly. In many regions of the environmental impacts of coal combustion adversely affect human health even at the genetic level. Maintenance costs of solid waste in the production of energy burning coals represent a third of the cost and pays for pollution of the environment through consumer tariffs. Stable corrupt officials and bond energy is not only kills the environment, but also hinders innovation in all areas. Concentration of population around the stations due to depletion of the province has exceeded all reasonable limits. Commissioning of new plants require a huge investment of time and not less than 10 years, with the payback period is estimated will never come. If the government has no plans for the next 2-3 years, where plans for 10 years or more may appear at large, but not comparable with the state companies?
In Europe, the U.S. plans to develop alternative energy incineration of solid fuels - solar, wind, tidal, etc. Attitude towards nuclear energy highly differentiated and there is no common position. The disadvantages of coal energy problems include solid waste, emissions of aerosols, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, which is justified, but they have the solutions [1]. Last 10 years a campaign on global warming, caused by the greenhouse effect of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, primarily coal-fired stations. The argument for a photograph of melting glaciers near residences campaign organizers. In fact, according to paleoclimatology Earth entered a period of cooling. Melting glaciers may be caused by not warming, but in the main air pollution aerosols. In the Altai at the second Karakol lake in 2010 was first observed is not melted during the summer Sneznik in the shade on the northern slope of the mountain range. Its formation is not dependent on air pollution, suggests it is a cold snap. Organization of the campaign on Global Warming copy successful operations carried out not so long ago with Freon. Corporation DuPont, made a fabulous fortune in trade gunpowder during World War II, made happy all humanity once again, removing the freon from the market and at the same time competitors. CFCs are declared cause of ozone hole over Antarctica, far away from potential releases CFCs. CFCs ceased to produce, and ozone holes as they used to and still remain in the atmosphere, because it does not relate to Freon. Let's return to power. The cost of alternative energy is much higher than that obtained by burning coal. Nevertheless, its development was allocated vast resources, mostly low. Alternative energy sources in the media call environmentally friendly. However, if viewed from the position of the planetary community, the production of more expensive energy leads to more environmental problems in general for the planet. In Europe, under the banner of clean energy pursuing other goals - improving the local environment it is in Europe, saving at least a small degree of independence from hydrocarbon supplies, maintaining a tone of scientific and technological sector, the results of which have broad and unanticipated applications. Generation of electricity from solar energy really gets clean in place of its reception in the developed countries, but the production of silicon cells is environmentally messy process, and is located in developing countries. Apparently, one can speak of the reasonable from all points of view, the development of alternative energy when using local features and resources, and energy is produced and consumed locally in regions not covered by the electricity grid. For non-network energy in general is not an issue cost comparison with traditional methods of obtaining energy because economic feasibility is determined by other factors.
At the first conference on the GTT, we proposed the concept of non-network clean energy coal: energy as biprodukt in the production of high-temperature materials in small reactors with oxygen [1]. The ideas were perceived ambiguously, as They totally contradict the prevailing belief system and as incompatible with the existing power generation industry and with academic programs. However, only a year of arguments for an alternative clean energy coal increased. In Germany, in 2008 built a boiler capacity of 30 MW for coal combustion in oxygen by Vattenfall - Technology Clean Coal, investments totaled 50 million euros over 3 years. Illusions that can be monopolized in Russia to improve energy, diminished, which has also contributed to the accident at the power plant. The fate of these giants, built in the Soviet Union in general very unenviable because issue of decommissioning of such facilities were not considered even theoretically. To increase energy production there is no economic and ecological alternative to a small brick and mortar "sources of energy and heat, producing a high-temperature reactors, especially expensive scarce materials from the mineral matter of coals. Balanced set of production-consumption of energy without flaws conventional coal power. The energy industry in Russia is so behind the times and grown into corrupt environment that is necessary to create an independent production with a lack of normal losses were ~ 80%. In solving the environmental problems accompanying the combustion of coal, small reactors that produce energy as biprodukt (departure), we can closely surround the housing and the productive sector, without loss of transportation and communication [1]. These solutions are easy to implement in small reactors for coal combustion with oxygen [1]. Home complexity of non-network energy - daily fluctuations in energy consumption. To solve this problem is necessary to achieve a balance between production and consumption of energy. In periods of falling energy demand should work processes produce oxygen, charging electric vehicles (real alternative to this mad project of hydrogen energy, beyond which looms the interest of the largest automobile manufacturers). In the German pilot project for Vattenfall laid non-economic decisions - the cryogenic air separation conventional technology, carbon capture and liquefaction of carbon dioxide for subsequent transport to the place of burial at a depth of 1 km. Because of these decisions, the cost of energy produced compared to the wind. Implementing a large scale of such an approach under the pressure of 'green' policy will lead to the collapse of the economy, and with the appearance of social tensions to address environmental problems just do not get it. The poor environment to anything. Trade in air was previously described in a fantasy novel, a new international bureaucracy, after the success of freon operations, want to seriously trade quotas on carbon dioxide. Life on Earth is based on the CO2 cycle in nature, so there is no reason for its assignment to the harmful gases. With the growth of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere speeds up the process of photosynthesis, which would inevitably lead to the establishment of equilibrium. Amounting to 95% of the waste gases from coal combustion in oxygen, CO2 can and should be used for industrial purposes. On the basis of the supercritical state CO2, having a unique solvent abilities, created a lot of promising technologies for the synthesis of different substances and powders. When they are received by conventional methods requires an energy of rigidly connected with the emission of CO2 into the atmosphere. The huge expenditure of energy, accompanied by the emission of CO2, are required to produce cement. Getting in the reactor of high-quality binders and fillers with inorganic components of coal burning and the introduction of corrective additives automatically reduces CO2 emissions in other industries, ie CO2 emissions offset from stock. In [1-2], the results from the potential evils of conventional fly ash from coal burning in existing boilers. Even from the unsatisfactory evils of ablation can provide about 10% of the material super-alpha with the consumer price is 6 times higher than the cement. There is no problem to get even more high-quality and expensive materials with 100% yield, with appropriate training combination of coal. To have new air separation membrane technology that does not require much energy and low temperatures. You might think that the main problem of burning coal in oxygen is a necessity of its production on a massive scale, because according to the reaction: C + O2 = CO2 per kg of carbon requires 2.67 kg of oxygen. Given that 1 cubic meter of oxygen weighs 1.43 kg with standard conditions, the combustion of 1 ton of carbon per day (about 1.5 tons of coal) would require 1,867 m3 of oxygen, for storing such a volume at a pressure of 100 atm is required tank volume of 20 cubic meters, quite acceptable and tested in the project Vattenfall. Reactor power while consuming 1.5 tons of coal per day is 0.4 MW at 50% efficiency of steam turbine output power reaches 200 kW, which would be sufficient to supply eco-settlements of 20-40 households. Of the 1.5 tons of coal valued at approximately 1500 rubles and 150 kg of mineral supplement get ~ 500 kg of filler for use in concrete or polymers. With high-quality preparation of the cost of coal will be not less than 7500 rubles (in prices of cement 2500 rubles per ton), the cost of electricity at a price of 1 ruble / kW  hour - 4800 rubles. In the production of light in the reactor glass microspheres cost solid double. Thus, the electrical and thermal energy is indeed becoming biproduktami (Waste Logic of Power) for the production of materials in a small reactor. During the combustion of coal in oxygen, the temperature becomes very high, so that you can enter more inorganic additives to reduce it, ie, when adjusting T in a reactor by increasing the content of the ash, the process becomes more profitable. The draft regulation does not provide for Vattenfall and the ash is considered as waste.
The company's success in the free market is largely achieved through specialization in production. However, there is a format of mega-projects that are implemented comprehensively and developers on a new basis (eg, bridges across the straits of the sea). The proposed concept of sustainable development based on the dual production of materials and non-network energy refers to the format of the mega-projects, although the costs are comparable to non-profit pilot project company Vattenfall. Implementation of the project will not only provide income but also generate new standards of living to meet contemporary challenges.
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