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Chemical reactors - an alternative to coal-fired boilers in power
    ABSTRACT

A new concept of decentralized energy production capacity as a byproduct in chemical reactors, where the main market the product is high-fine-grained material with high market value. Reducing the size of boilers to two orders of magnitude, and the complete solution associated with coal energy environmental problems allows us to develop a single set of eco-settlements, modern innovative productions around the source of heat and power with small timing of implementation and payback. From small energy consumption, instead of transferring energy over time zones in a single network will be mainly production of oxygen, which increases the efficiency of small boilers, provide high quality products, solve the problem of nitrogen oxides. To obtain the specified materials in the reactor, coal will be processed at the polyfunctional Eco-Technology EMC to micron level, with the inorganic component of coal will mix to the desired level of chemical composition. Balance of material and energy flows around the reactor will provide strong synergies. The project meets all the challenges.

The main theses of the report:
All methods of energy production in a single network, including the so-called "Green" or renewable sources, have considerable environmental cost. Currently there are about 40% of the electricity produced by combustion of solid fossil fuels, mainly coal. The share of coal in the balance is gradually increasing, as namely its proven reserves, relatively large in comparison with gas and oil, can increase the production of energy. However, the obstacle to energy development on carbon is inevitable production of vast quantities of solid waste, high costs for cleaning exhaust gases from dust, sulfur and nitrogen oxides that cause acid rain, greenhouse gas emissions. With world production of coal about 1 billion tons and its average ash content of 20%, solid waste is added to the 200 million tons annually. Dispose of the global average only one-tenth of the waste, mainly in the construction industry. The situation is aggravated proximity of TPP ash dumps them to the mega-cities - mostly consumers produced heat and electricity. Particularly acute problems related to energy, purchased in Russia due to outdated technologies and inefficient communications, environmental neglect, harsh climate, the monopoly nature of the main part of the economy, inadequate legislation. Production of energy burning solid fuel harms the environment in the area of residence of the general population, and also makes the main contribution to climate change. The evolutionary path of development of coal high-power energy in principle can not change the negative trends are gathering pace with the acceleration. The society has already come to realize that a sensible decentralization and diversification of energy production that will bring its production to customers and dramatically reduce the cost of its transmission. One of the main arguments for the development of alternative energy sources is just the ability to produce energy in remote regions of the network. However, energy coal gives the minimal cost (without environmental price) just in huge cauldrons. For such stations, the unit produced a characteristic of solid waste is one million tons per year. The new plant will require investments of several billion euros, the timing of design, construction and commissioning of at least 10 years of payback in the current economic climate speech did not go. Decentralization of coal power, when solid products of combustion of coal on existing technologies a priori be considered waste, is impossible, because the cost of energy, as well as its environmental price, only grow.

We propose to turn the current pyramid - the production of materials in high temperature chemical reactors should be a staple, and the heat and the power of his electrical energy - "waste" or by-product. In this formulation, environmental "problems" favorably resolve fully at the design stage. Approximation of small power production to consumers without any pressure on the environment will be possible, and the ordinary losses and costs disappear. As evidence of the economic reality of supply can cause the price of coal and recycled solid combustion products in 2008: the price of Ekibastuz coal ash content 40% was less than 50US $ per ton, and only 2 components extracted from 1 ton of ash, and costs half as real customer value in the summer construction season - 100 US $. Even the semi-processing ensures comparability of the prices the main product - the energy and solid waste, although an integrated technology and processing. It is in this case is not about producing quality products in high temperature reactor, and the Waste of Energy, which is not always consistent, even obsolete GOST in ash carryover. Thin fractions extracted from fly ash, a positive effect on the strength of concrete.

Super-alpha - the thinnest part of the fly ash with an average size of about 8 microns with an approximate content of 5-10%, Alpha - a fine fraction with an average size of about 15 microns and the content of 15-25%. Strength, and all other indicators of concrete are improved by replacing only 30% of cement.
Detailed description of the various evils of ablation is devoted to a book, which shows the characterization of all components and how complex processing. The most famous and commercially attractive component of evils ash cenospheres are - hollow glass microspheres with a density <1. However, their content in the ash of about 1%. The main components of ash ash - glass microspheres such as hollow, but with a density> 1. Production of artificial glass beads and hollow microspheres is rapidly growing. One of the most capacious markets for microspheres is the production of fillers for paints and polymers. The only limitation to their rapid and widespread - the high price of production - from 8 to 100 US $ / kg. For many applications, the ash microspheres are quite competitive in quality and are out of competition on price.

Another interesting component of the evils of ablation are the magnetosphere, which show, for example, selective catalytic properties in methane conversion.
In the technology of production of many materials using high temperature, especially in the manufacture of cement. His acute shortage in the country, and the quality of prohibitively low, and prices above world prices. There are no technical or technological problems that would not be allowed to make a pot synthesis of clinker minerals simultaneously with the burning of coal. To produce such binders or other materials required to stabilize the composition of the inorganic component of coal, as well as ensure steady burning with minimal residual coke.

Reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur as possible, and not in the usual way for large-scale power. Necessary to ensure complete capture of dust, which has the maximum market value and simultaneously the most dangerous if it enters the atmosphere. That dust, flies in the tube to the old cement industry, determines the quality of cement. The introduction of this dust in the manufacture of concrete - it's expensive and troublesome. In the new formulation requirements for the boiler - chemical reactors, the selection and preparation of fuel with the introduction of the missing inorganic additives to obtain the necessary high-quality products, as well as gas cleaning system are changing radically.
From the standpoint of economic efficiency of the optimal size of the boiler-reactor will be determined by actual capacity of the regional market for manufactured products. If you are in the reactor, for example, a binder or its main components, the volume of the boiler will be at 2 orders of magnitude smaller than existing in the energy sector. Increasing the size or number of boilers is possible with product diversification. If a conventional power tend to increase the size of the boiler to reduce heat loss and energy costs, and reduce the size of treatment plants, increasing the cost, then for small reactor size increases dust collection system and treatment is not critical.
Preparation of fuel requires an increase in particle size and improved particle size to eliminate underburning - remnants of coke in the "ash" ash. The introduction of inorganic additives require the preparation of precursors of products already on the stage of grinding, agglomeration, or classification. The particle size of the product at the reactor outlet was little changed, and morphology will be determined by the degree of homogenization of raw components. All these problems are easily solved by using polyfunctional eco-technology class Elektromassklassifikator (EMC). During the processing of coal to the size of 1 m for the introduction into the boiler as a suspension may simultaneously shredding, separation and enrichment - introduced by the separation of inorganic impurities (accessory minerals), which are harder and heavier than the crushed coal. Trial experiments with brown coal Kansk-Achinsk shown the promise of this approach. In a large fraction are not only heavy mineral impurities, but coke particles, which burn much longer, and as a result of departures, along with fly ash, dramatically reducing its quality. (For the combustion of such fuels, as well as low-grade coal and organic waste are more suitable for eco-boilers, fluidized bed, where the residence time in the combustion zone by orders of magnitude greater.) Preparation of inorganic additives - natural raw materials such as clay, chalk, etc. also available on the EMC, as separation of the most active small fraction of raw material is much more profitable to fine grinding. In the EMC operation enrichment materials by soft grinding, disaggregation, separation and perfect homogenisation of the components can be done in one pass in a continuous mode with a capacity of 1 ton per hour on machines with a rotor diameter of 1 meter EMC energy consumption in this mode is less than 10 kW / hr per 1 ton of raw mix.
High-temperature reactor would inevitably lead to the formation of nitrogen oxides. Flue gas cleaning existing technologies for small-scale production can greatly reduce the profitability. Throw in the issue of daily fluctuations in energy consumption, which are relatively easily offset by a single power supply redeployment of energy in other regions. Both of these problems, if they unite, are innovative and simple solution: if the price of cleaning waste gases from nitrogen oxides is high, then you can use the oxygen for combustion. Production of oxygen is beneficial in the night by liquefying air. Waste production - liquid nitrogen and argon in demand in the market, but if you develop a single set - the reactor + eco-village with small and medium industries, the lowest local price for waste - liquid nitrogen can stimulate the production of specialized, requiring low temperatures. If there are two waste - liquid nitrogen and flue gas CO2, is a snap to set up production of carbon dioxide, which is becoming one of the most interesting solvent in the supercritical state. The rapid growth of research and development of new technologies using supercritical solvent, which has tremendous commercial potential, which inevitably will be rested in its deficit or high cost, for example, because of transportation. The use of oxygen in the reactor, in turn, has many positive effects:
1) dramatically increases the efficiency of reactors, removing from the agenda inefficient small boilers;
2) guarantee the quality of the materials obtained on the content of mechanical underburning;
3) removed organic pollutants PM10, occupying first place in the list of most hazardous substances (in the traditional energy trying not to notice this problem);
4) is eliminated at the design stage all the complicated and expensive system for purification of waste gases from nitrogen oxides and sulfur, as purification of small amounts of sulfur is solved automatically preparing an inorganic mixture containing CaCO3.

In conventional thermal power plant flue gas is present in almost all the periodic table of elements, including the most dangerous - mercury, antimony, arsenic, lead, cadmium, uranium, etc. Solution in the existing energy is reduced emissions below the level of MPC by dilution of dirty clean, for example, increasing the height of pipes for the dispersal of pollutants. In fact, this is an example of bureaucratic "solutions" that leads to progressive environmental pollution. In the natural environment is a gradual bioavailability of mercury, ie, methylation in biological systems, and the transition into the food chain to the level of MPC by 3 orders of magnitude. The mercury content is very difficult to control. Analytical instruments for monitoring mercury levels ppb appeared only recently. On a typical mercury content in ash ash Russian TPPs about 0.1-1 ppm, we can conclude that the atmosphere around the power station had flown to 10 times more mercury because of its volatility. If we take into account the amount of coal burned and the duration of exposure, it becomes clear that the land for miles around the power station has become dangerous to stay because of the destruction of the biosphere. For small reactors, the problem of recovery of volatile elements is solved by adsorption on charcoal at a temperature below the dew point (for mercury compounds is minimal and is about 200  C). To implement an effective trapping of volatile elements, should be disposed of low-calorie warm. At a typical thermal power plant is almost done very rarely create greenhouse farms, in small reactors of this heat will be calculated the sector of agricultural production and cheap heating. With the accumulation of volatile elements can be regenerated absorbent to obtain expensive and valuable products, primarily uranium, cobalt, vanadium [1].
Study components evils of ablation of various origins showed [1-2] that the spectrum of popular market products is very wide. With further research and management regime in the boiler-reactor, possibly in the first place to raise their quality, and due to this increase and the range of potential applications.
It is obvious that the production of secondary energy does not give much effect when it is supplying a single network, although such a connection is possible, and at times will be mutually beneficial. Much more attractive and popular option is associated with the construction of the reactor Eco-settlement of "smart" passive houses, which do not require a central communications, primarily water and sewer. Basic projects balanced smart homes in eco-village, along with a package of technological and organizational solutions developed several years ago. Calculations showed that at a latitude of Novosibirsk in such houses requires virtually no heating, except for backup. Moreover, synergy occurs when balanced with the production side power number of consumers - mostly private residences and small businesses.

Waste from processing of coal may be burned in low-temperature boiler with a fluidized bed (CCR), along with organic waste eco-settlement. Achieving balance in this scheme may still at the stage of planning and design, but it requires large investments, although not comparable to the construction of new thermal power plants.
To Siberia, the main supplier to the Russian budget, where 98% of the population lives in prizheleznodorozhnoy zone, development is impossible for the rest of the current situation. Concentration of population around the production of energy has exceeded all reasonable limits. Problems in modern cities do not have solutions, and the construction of new settlements in an entirely different modern technological and infrastructural base is actually forbidden by the current land legislation. The problem start for the alternative "energy" is very difficult but possible for small-scale reactors, boilers. This is facilitated by the lack of quality housing, high cost and lack of modern facilities for business, shortage, poor quality and high prices for many building materials, general pollution of the environment in areas where communications can reach the standard.
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