All methods of energy production in a single network, including the so-called "Green" or renewable sources, have considerable environmental cost. About 40% of electricity worldwide is produced by burning coal. The share of coal in the balance is gradually increasing, as namely its proven reserves can increase the production of energy. However, the obstacle to energy development on carbon is inevitable production of vast quantities of solid waste, emission of greenhouse gases, the high cost of cleaning waste gases from dust, sulfur and nitrogen oxides that cause acid rain. With world production of coal about 1 billion tons and its average ash content of 20%, solid waste is added to the 200 million tons annually. Dispose of the global average only one-tenth of the waste (in Russia is half), mainly in the construction industry. The situation is aggravated proximity of TPP ash dumps them to the mega-cities - mostly consumers produced heat and electricity. Special urgency associated with coal energy environmental issues acquired in Russia.
Production of energy solid fuel combustion contributes to climate change. The evolutionary path of development of coal high-power energy in principle can not change the negative trends are gathering pace with the acceleration. The society has already come to realize that a sensible decentralization and diversification of energy production that will bring its production to customers and dramatically reduce the cost of its transmission. However, energy coal gives the minimal cost (without environmental price) just in huge cauldrons. For large thermal power plants characteristic of the unit made of solid wastes is one million tons per year. The new plant will require investments of several billion euros, the timing of design, construction and commissioning of at least 10 years, the payback is not predictable. Decentralization of coal power, when solid products of combustion of coal on existing technologies a priori be considered waste, is impossible, because the cost of energy, as well as its environmental price, only grow. Proposed to revise the status quo: the production of materials in high temperature chemical reactors should be a major, and the warmth and energy - by-products or waste.
In this formulation, environmental "problems" favorably resolve fully at the design stage. Approximation of small power production to consumers will be possible without the pressure on the environment, and losses on the transfer are minimized. As evidence of the economic reasonableness of the proposal may result in prices in 2008 on the Ekibastuz coal with ash content 40% (<50US $ / ton) and the consumer cost of only two products - additives in cement and concrete, isolated from 1 ton of fly ash (200 US $). Superiority will increase many times for quality and value of solid products produced by burning coal prepared with corrective inorganic additives in high-temperature reactors.
Energy development strategy is fatally flawed because compiled from the Soviet pattern energy, which is a priori considered solid products from coal combustion waste. Therefore, a disproportionately large role in our energy gas - the best export commodity, the price at which artificially undervalued. Detailed description of the various evils of ablation is devoted to the book "Fly ash - technogenic raw materials" (published in a September, 2009). In this scientific publication shows the characteristics of all types of evils and their components, as well as ways to complex processing. In the ash of ash components are approaching the quality of artificial materials, which cost up to several dollars per gram. The most profitable full treatment of solid combustion products of coal. Untapped market of 10% the remainder of the dry processing of ash carryover low-cost methods of physical separation can be processed wet technology with extraction including concentrate the rare earth elements REE, uranium, vanadium. Market History REE shows sharp fluctuations in prices, but today we can confidently predict a steady growth in demand for REE, which are demanded in large quantities in the production of hybrid cars, not counting the new materials and electronics. Almost monopolistic position in the market REE won by China, which initially dumping crushed the competition, but now has no plans to remove the REE from the country except in goods.
For the production of binders or other materials from coal combustion is required to stabilize the composition of inorganic components as well as to provide sustained combustion with a minimum balance of coke. Reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur as possible, and not in the usual way for large-scale power. Necessary to ensure complete capture of dust, which has the maximum market value and simultaneously the most dangerous if it enters the atmosphere. Economically optimal size of the boiler-reactor is determined by actual capacity of the market for manufactured products. For the production of binders volume of the reactor will be at 2 orders of magnitude smaller than normal in the power boilers. If in power seek to increase the size of the boiler to reduce heat loss and energy costs, and reduce the size of treatment plants, increasing the cost, then a very small reactor size increases the relative size of dust collection and treatment is not critical.
Preparation of fuel to be burned in reactors requires an increase in particle size and improved particle size to eliminate underburning - remnants of coke. The particle size of the product at the reactor outlet was little changed, while morphology is laid on the preparation of inorganic additives. During the processing of coal to micron size for introduction into the boiler as a suspension of enrichment is possible. All these problems are easily solved by using multifunctional equipment class Elektromassklassifikator (EMC
). Separation on EMC active thin fraction of natural raw materials such as clay, chalk, etc., is much cheaper traditional fine grinding. Residues from coal to burn in the eco-boilers, fluidized bed, where you can enter as household waste.
At high temperatures in the boilers formed nitrogen oxides. Flue gas cleaning by conventional methods for small-scale production greatly reduces profitability. Throw in the issue of daily fluctuations in energy consumption, which are relatively easily offset by a single power supply redeployment of energy in other regions. These problems, together have a simple unconventional solution: use the oxygen in the reactor, and receive it by liquefying air at night. Waste production - liquid nitrogen and argon in demand in the market, but if you develop a single set of production and consumption of energy - the reactor + Eco-village
by 10-20 thousand people with small and medium-sized enterprises, the low cost waste products - liquid nitrogen can stimulate the development of technologies that require low temperatures. If there are two waste - liquid nitrogen and carbon dioxide can be set up production of carbon dioxide - the perspective of the solvent in the supercritical state. The rapid growth of research in this area led to a fundamentally new technologies, such as the production of nanopowders and nanomaterials. Nighttime energy consumption will also provide hybrid cars. If you use oxygen in the reactor:
1) dramatically increases efficiency, removing from the agenda inefficient small boilers;
2) guarantee the quality of the materials obtained on the content of mechanical underburning;
3) removed organic pollutants PM10, occupying first place in the list of most hazardous substances (in the traditional energy trying not to notice this problem);
4) eliminates the expensive system for purification of waste gases from nitrogen oxides and sulfur, as Sulfur is captured injected inorganic additives.
In conventional thermal power plant flue gas is present in almost all the periodic table of elements, including the most dangerous - mercury, arsenic, lead, cadmium, uranium, etc. Solution in the existing energy is reduced emissions below the level of MPC by dilution of dirty clean, for example, increasing the height of pipes for the dispersal of pollutants. In fact, this is an example of anti-bureaucratic solution leading to rapid destruction of habitat. In the natural environment is a gradual transition and bioavailability of mercury in the food chain from the MPC is a thousand times smaller. For small reactors, the problem of recovery of volatile elements is solved by adsorption on charcoal at a temperature below the dew point. With the accumulation of volatile elements can be regenerated absorbent to produce enriched uranium and other products. To effectively capture the volatile elements necessary disposal of low-calorie of heat that can be used to heat homes and greenhouses in the Eco-village
It is obvious that the production side of energy for a single network is not of interest. The optimum solution is to build the reactor autonomous Eco-village
of "smart" passive houses do not require a central communications - water and sanitation. Basic designs of such houses in the eco-village, along with a package of technological and organizational solutions developed several years ago for a business plan Eco-village
. Calculations showed that at a latitude of Novosibirsk in such homes during normal power consumption requires virtually no heating. Cost of comfortable housing in the eco-village is 2-3 times lower than the prices at the current "market" thanks to new technologies, the rapid construction of the pipeline and the use of local raw materials and recycled "waste", and lower maintenance costs by 4-6 times.
Strong synergies appear when the balance between the production of secondary energy in a reactor and consumption - the residences and businesses in the eco-village. To Siberia, the main supplier to the Russian budget, where 98% of the population lives near the railroad development of the territory is possible only to the creation of autonomous eco-villages with sustainable type of development. However, construction of new settlements is actually banned by the Land Law and related corruption. The problem start for the alternative "energy" is very complicated because of the lack of innovation market infrastructure, but in principle it is possible for small scale reactors. This contributes to the deficit and / or unavailability of housing and facilities for small and innovative businesses. The proposed integrated approach is most effective in the creation of technology parks and science cities, because new infrastructure without the suffocating embrace of the monopolies and bureaucracy will provide overhead close to the developed countries with a mild climate.