In Akademgorodok, Novosibirsk, 10 to 13 November the VII All-Russia Conference (with international participation) on "burning solid fuel", where our company has made a presentation on "Chemical reactors - an alternative to coal-fired boilers in power."
The main points of the report:
All methods of energy production in a single network, including the so-called "Green" technology or renewable sources, have considerable environmental cost. Currently, an estimated 40% of electrical energy produced by combustion of solid fossil fuels, mainly coal. The share of coal in the gradually increasing, as namely its explored reserves, relatively large in comparison with gas and oil, can increase production of energy. However, the hindrance to the development of coal-fired power is the inevitable production of vast quantities of solid waste, high cost of cleaning up waste gases from dust, sulfur and nitrogen oxides that cause acid rain, greenhouse gas emissions. With world production of coal about 1 billion tons and its average ash content of 20%, solid waste is added to the 200 million tons annually. Utilized in the global average only one tenth of waste, mainly in the construction industry. To aggravate the situation in close proximity to the TPPs of ash dumps to megacities - the main consumers produced heat and electricity. Particularly acute problems related to energy purchased in Russia because of outdated technologies and inefficient communications, disregard for the environment, the harsh climate, the monopolistic nature of the main part of the economy, the imperfection of the legislation. Production of energy by burning solid fuels damages the environment in the area of residence of the general population, as well as making a major contribution to climate change. The evolutionary path of development of large coal-fired power capacity in principle, allows to change the negative trends are gathering pace with the acceleration. In a society have come to understand that there must be reasonable decentralization and diversification of energy production, which will bring its production closer to customers and dramatically reduce the cost of its transmission. One of the main arguments for the development of alternative energy sources is just the possibility of producing energy in remote regions of the network. However, coal-fired power gives the minimum cost (without environmental cost) only in huge boilers. For such stations, the characteristic unit of solid waste is produced by one million tons per year. The new plant will require investments of several billion euros, terms of design, construction and commissioning of at least 10 years of payback in the current economic conditions, the speech did not go. Decentralization of coal power, when the solid products of burning coal on existing technologies a priori considered waste, is impossible, because the cost of energy, as well as its environmental price, only grow. We propose to turn the current pyramid - the production of materials in high temperature chemical reactors should be the main product, and heat and produces electrical energy from him - "waste" or by-product. In this formulation, the environmental "problems" profitable deal more fully at the design stage. Approximation of small power production to consumers without pressure on the environment will be possible, but ordinary losses and costs disappear. As evidence of the economic reality of supply can cause the price of coal and processed solid products of its combustion in 2008: Price Ekibastuz coal ash 40% less than 50US $ per ton, but only 2 components isolated from 1 ton of ash, and costs half as real consumer cost in the summer construction season - 100 US $. Even the semi-processing ensures the comparability of prices the main product - the energy and solid waste, although possible, and comprehensive technology for recycling. It is in this case is not about producing quality products in high temperature reactor, and waste energy, which do not always correspond even obsolete GOST in ash carryover. Fine fraction isolated from fly ashes have a positive effect on the durability of concrete.
Super-alpha - the thinnest part of the fly ashes with an average size of about 8 microns with an exemplary content of 5-10%, Alpha - a thin fraction with an average size of about 15 microns and the content of 15-25%. Strength and all other indicators of concrete only be improved by replacing up to 30% of cement.
Detailed description of the various evils of ablation is devoted to the book, which shows the characterization of all components and ways of complex processing. The most famous and commercially attractive component of the evils of ablation are cenospheres - hollow glass microspheres with a density <1. However, their content in the ashes of the order of 1%. The main component of the evils of ablation - glass microspheres, such as hollow, but with a density> 1. Manufacture of glass beads and hollow microspheres is rapidly growing. One of the most capacious markets for the production of microspheres is a filler for paints and polymers. The only limitation to their rapid and widespread - the high price of production - up to 1000 US $ / kg. For many applications, ash microspheres are quite competitive in quality and are out of competition on price.
Another interesting component of the evils of ablation are the magnetosphere, which show, for example, selective catalytic properties in the conversion of methane.
In the technology of production of many materials using high temperature, especially in the manufacture of cement. His lack of acute in the country, and the quality prohibitively low, and prices above world prices. There is no technical or technological problems that would not be allowed to make a pot synthesis of clinker minerals in conjunction with the burning of coal. For the production of such binders or other materials required to stabilize the composition of inorganic component of coal, as well as to ensure sustained combustion with a minimum balance of coke.
Reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur as possible, not common for large energy means. Should be fully capture dust, which has the highest market value and simultaneously the most dangerous if it enters the atmosphere. That dust, flying into the chimney at the outdated enterprises of the cement industry, the quality of cement. Introduction of this dust in the manufacture of concrete - is expensive and troublesome. In the new formulation requirements for the boiler - chemical reactors, choosing and preparing the fuel with the introduction of the missing inorganic additives to obtain the necessary high-quality products, as well as gas cleaning system are radically changed.
From the standpoint of economic efficiency of the optimal size of the boiler-reactor will be determined by the actual capacity of the regional market for manufactured products. If produced in a reactor, for example, a binder or its main component, the volume of the boiler will be 2 orders of magnitude smaller than existing energy. Increase in the size or number of boilers is possible with the diversification of products. If the normal power tend to increase the size of the boiler to reduce heat loss and energy costs, and reduce the size of treatment plants, increasing production costs, then for small scale reactors increase of dust collection system and treatment is not critical.
Preparation of fuel requires an increase in dispersion and improve the particle size distribution to eliminate carbon - remnants of coke in the fly ash. Introduction of inorganic additives require the preparation of precursors of products already on the stage of grinding, agglomeration, or classification. The particle size of the product at the outlet of the reactor changed little, and morphology will be determined by the degree of homogenization of raw components. All these problems are easily solved by using polyfunctional eco-technology class Elektromassklassifier (EMC). During the processing of coal to the size of ~ 1 micron for the introduction into the boiler as a suspension may simultaneously shredding, separation and enrichment - a branch of introduced inorganic impurities (accessory minerals), which are harder and heavier than the crushed coal. Trial experiments with brown coal Kansk-Achinsk showed promise of this approach. In the coarse fraction are not only heavy mineral impurities, and particles of coke, which burns much longer, and as a result of fly ash with ash, sharply reducing its quality. (For the burning of such fuels, as well as low-grade coal and organic waste are more suitable eco-fluidized-bed boilers, where the residence time in the combustion zone by orders of magnitude larger.) Preparation of inorganic additives - natural raw materials such as clay, chalk, etc. also available on the EMC, as separation of the most active fine fraction material is much more profitable to fine grinding. In the EMC operation enrichment materials by soft grinding, aggregation, separation, and a perfect homogenization of components can be done in one pass in a continuous mode with a capacity of about 1 ton per hour for vehicles with a rotor diameter of 1 meter EMC Energy consumption in this mode is not more than 10 kW / hr per 1 ton of raw mix.
High-temperature reactor would inevitably lead to the formation of nitrogen oxides. Cleaning exhaust gases existing technologies in small-scale production can greatly reduce the profitability. Add here the problem of daily fluctuations in energy consumption, which are relatively easily leveled in the unified power grid shift of power in other regions. Both of these problems, if they are combined, are innovative and simple solution: if the price of cleaning waste gases from nitrogen oxides is high, then you can use the oxygen for combustion. Production of oxygen beneficial at night by liquefaction of air. Waste materials - liquid nitrogen and argon in demand in the market, but if you develop a single set - the reactor + eco-village with small and medium industries, the lowest local price for waste - liquid nitrogen can stimulate the production of specialized, requiring low temperatures. If there are two waste - liquid nitrogen and flue gas CO2, very easy to set up production of carbon dioxide, which becomes one of the most interesting solvent in the supercritical state. The rapid growth of research and development of new technologies using supercritical solvent, which has tremendous commercial potential, which inevitably will be rested in its deficit or high cost, for example, because of transportation. The use of oxygen in the reactor, in turn, has many positive effects: 1) dramatically increases the efficiency of the reactors, removing from the agenda of the poor performance of small boilers, and 2) guaranteed quality of the materials on the content of mechanical nedozhoga 3) removed organic pollutants PM10, occupying first place in the list the most hazardous substances (in the traditional energy trying not to notice this problem) 4) is eliminated at the stage of designing the entire complex and expensive system for purification of waste gases from nitrogen oxides and sulfur, as cleaning of small admixtures of sulfur solved automatically preparing inorganic mixture containing CaCO3.
In conventional thermal power plant flue gases present in almost all of the periodic table of elements, including the most dangerous - mercury, antimony, arsenic, lead, cadmium, uranium, etc. The solution to the existing energy is reduced emissions below the maximum permissible concentration by dilution of dirty clean, for example, increase the height of pipes for the dispersal of hazardous substances. In fact, this is an example of bureaucratic "solutions", leading to progressive contamination of the environment. In the natural environment is a gradual bioavailability of mercury, ie methylation in biological systems, and migrate into the food chain with the level of MPC by 3 orders of magnitude smaller. The mercury content is very difficult to control. Analytical instruments for monitoring of mercury at ppb appeared only recently. A typical mercury content in ash ash Russian TPPs order 0.1-1 ppm can be concluded that the atmosphere around the TPP flew 10 times more mercury because of its volatility. If we take into account the amount of coal burned and the duration of exposure, it becomes clear that the land for many miles around thermal power plants has become unsafe for habitation because of the destruction of the biosphere. For the small reactor problem is solved trapping of volatile compounds by adsorption on coals at a temperature below the dew point (for mercury compounds is minimal and is about 200 C). To implement effective capture of volatile elements, it is necessary to utilize a low-calorie warm. In the typical thermal power station is almost done very rarely create greenhouse farms, in small reactors of this heat will last sector of cheap agrarian sector and heating homes. With the accumulation of volatile elements of the absorbent can be regenerated with obtaining expensive and valuable products, primarily uranium, cobalt, vanadium .
Study of the components of the evils of ablation of different origin showed [1-2] that the spectrum of market demand of products is very wide. With further research and management regime in the boiler-reactor may be in the first place to raise their quality, and due to this increase and the range of potential applications.
Obviously, the incidental production of energy will not give large effect in its delivery into a single network, although such a connection is possible, and at times will be mutually beneficial. Much more attractive option called-connected with the construction of the reactor around the eco-settlements of the "smart" passive houses, which do not require a central communications, primarily water and sewer. Basic projects balanced smart homes in the eco-village, along with a package of technological and organizational solutions developed several years ago. Calculations showed that at the latitude of Novosibirsk in such houses requires little or no heating, except for backup. Moreover, synergy occurs when balanced with the production quantity of energy consumers - mostly private residences and small businesses.
Waste from processing of coal can be burned in low-temperature boiler with a fluidized bed (CCS), together with organic waste eco-settlements. Achieving balance in the above scheme may be at the stage of planning and design, but requires large investments, although not comparable to the construction of new thermal power plants.
In Siberia, a major supplier to the budget of Russia, where 98% of the population lives in prizheleznodorozhnoy zone, the development of the rest of the impossible with the current situation. The concentration of population around the production of energy has exceeded all reasonable limits. Problems in modern metropolitan areas do not have solutions, and the construction of new settlements in a very different modern technological and infrastructural basis in fact is prohibited by the current land legislation. The problem for the launch of alternative "energy" is very complicated, but possible for small-scale reactors boilers. This is facilitated by the lack of quality housing, high cost and lack of modern facilities for business, shortage, poor quality and high prices for many building materials, general environmental pollution in areas where communications can reach the standard.