In January of this year our firm has made an application on the patent "the Device for continuous fractionation of non-uniform powder materials, including technogenic and natural raw materials".
For complex processing of powder materials of type of mineral and technogenic raw materials without what the modern civilisation cannot exist, division in large quantities non-uniform mixes with allocation of valuable components is necessary. Pure components already in itself are the market goods, and in a mix they are a waste. As a rule, they not only occupy the earth and demand service, but also is strong and is irreversible pollute environment, including aqueous and air basins. At storage in a usual environment of the materials created by a civilisation (for example, a waste from coal burning), or extracted of bowels, during time goes chemical processes which change a starting material simultaneously with environment change. These processes practically always render negative character on environment, create unsuitable conditions for the further residing of people and wildlife on significant distances from a warehousing place.
the Problem of complex processing cheap on composition of non-uniform materials costs for a long time, but has no economically reasonable or comprehensible technical decisions. The cheapest methods of physical dry separation basically are capable to divide non-uniform mixes into a number of components, but only in case of them concerning the large sizes and absence of a dust which because of inherent strong adhesion is binding and does not allow to separate a particle from each other, that is a necessary condition of their division on any properties. Thus, the problem of removal of dust particles from raw materials that it has turned to a loose material from separate particles, is key in the decision of a problem of salvaging with advantage of powder raw materials of a various origin which make more than 90 % of all waste. Dusting off should not create the new problem even more dangerous to environment and attendants because of bad catching of the most harmful and easily propagating particles of the aerosol size - less than 1 micron.
THE REVIEW OF PATENTS AND OTHER SOURCES
In numerous patents for devices for division of thin powder materials the flowing way based on air flushing of a powder material, dispersed by various methods or without the such is used. For sharper sizing of particles use the centrifugal force created by a rotor. In a number of patents use vortical streams for disaggregation of conglomerates on individual particles. The problem of purification of departing air from a dust or is not considered at all - she dares in the separate systems which are not entering into a subject of the patent, i.e. the problem is sent to other technical decisions, or air stream goes in cycles - the departing stream concerning cleared air again goes on a separator input.
However this decision preventing hit of a dangerous ultradisperse dust in environment, result ins to short life of the equipment and sharp increase of cost of operation, that for processing of cheap materials unacceptably. For improvement of disaggregation of flours of powder by usual reception the increase in speed of an air current till speed of a sound is. Similar decisions result in high cost of operation at the expense of expensive equipment and necessity of service and frequent repair of devices.
The unique type of technics well solving all complex of problems, the technics class Electromassclassifier
. From this class of technics the closest for a widescale separation process of non-uniform powders is the device for coal ash division. However the known technical decision also is not deprived lacks.
The mineral and technogenic raw materials, as a rule, strongly vary on dispersity and the dust maintenance. Division only on large and thin fractions can not provide the further processing of large fraction by methods of physical separation because of a composition variation. Because of assembly of thin fraction both on the centre under the separation chamber, and on periphery demands abrupt angle in receiving devices for maintenance of the subsequent removal of a product. This requirement result ins to excessively large dimensions of installation and increase of cost of operation. In the technical decision long continuous operation that is why high efficiency is not reached is not provided on a number of points.