Despite the current and emerging new technologies and solutions are proposed for processing and disposal of ash carryover, in Russia many of the ideas had actually been implemented at least in any trial version.
There are many reasons why it happened like that.
Let's try to outline the key aspects of this problem. The more so that in solving the problem of disposal of ash with these realities must be considered, otherwise the decision will not be realized.
1. A huge amount of fly ash, in every major city annual ash ash and slag entering the ash dumps is from 500 thousand tons to 2-3 and sometimes 6 million tons.
Thus, even digest all the ashes, we have hundreds of thousands of tons of various products, they need somewhere to use and implement. The market is not ready to absorb such volumes. The construction industry is a major potential consumer of products from the ashes. However, this industry has a pronounced seasonal character, and just at a time when the volume of ash produced is minimal.
2. Heterogeneity of ash on the chemical and granulometric composition.
The absurdity of the situation lies in the fact that the increase in coal prices, makes heat-generating companies to buy more cheap coal, and this inevitably leads to an increase in ash content. What respectively, leads to an increase in the volume of ash dumps, and the volume could rise to 2 times. The combustion of high-quality coal of the Kuznetsk Basin in the mode-functioning boiler ash is 10-15%. Ash content of coal Ekibastuz is about 40%. The ash content of some types of energy use are beginning to be interested in some of the energy reaches 80%.
3. Burning coals of various grades in the same pot.
Each ash on each pot strictly individual as fingerprints. Write a ubiquitous technology, processing every ash - was unrealistic.
Some power plants use coal contrive to three or four different brands at one and the same pot at different times. That is why many potential customers refuse to use ash ash ash in their formulations and products, as it is impossible to be sure that today the ash is the same as yesterday. And the cost of the laboratory, capable of in a short time to give a snapshot of the ashes of ash, the millions of rubles. That is, the laboratory simply not pay for itself, if we consider only the profits earned from the sale of ash.
4. The price of dry ash ash on average in Russia was at the level of 140 to 1000 b. / ton. How did Europe and America: they understood that to spur the market to create a sustainable trend for consumption of ash. Therefore, they are in the early years of paying themselves all interested companies for the fact that they took the ashes. Payment of Power in revenue to $ 5 per ton. Companies who have received money for the ashes, of course, invested money in search of clients, applications and technology development, where only it were possible. What we see as a result of the West: the emergence of a number of products that have advanced greatly entire industries, such as paint industry, dry mix, low-cost building materials and consequently lower the cost of housing, roads, buildings and structures.
Russian mentality can not pay consumers for what they took away the ashes. But in vain. The cost of ash dump, its content, the system of transport of ash in the ash dump, up to 30% of the value of final products: heat and electricity.
5. The virtual absence of established systems of shipment to consumers dry fly ash.
In Russia, established less than 10 systems transporting dry ash outside kotloturbinnogo shop. Without solving this problem, the rest is not solved. For example, power plants produce 500 000 tons of ash, on average 57 tons per hour. That is an hour you will be shipped at least 5 cement. And no matter what you do on the street -30 and open the door to the shop to skip the cement can not be there. Practice has shown that if the hopper with dry ashes are in the shop, the bandwidth is not more than 3 cement per hour and in the warm season. And we are talking about year-round clock shipment. The cost of such systems up to 25 million rubles, depending on the distance.
While the cost of environmental fines is relatively small. Only a significant increase in environmental penalties will encourage investment in power engineering solutions for the disposal of ashes. It is easier to agree to the ecologists, the latter is even more profitable to violate them and paid. However, if the fines will increase, then the energy will be forced to raise prices for its services and products, that is, to pay for the environment would have us, the consumers.
Actively passed the reform of RAO UES has led to the fact that a large number of relatively independent joint stock companies. In fact, as a regional monopoly, companies are interested in the maximum level of profitability required by the statute and shareholders. However, most energy enterprises morally and physically obsolete capital equipment for heat and electricity. This already leads to the fact that the company withdraw their shares on the stock market to raise funds for programs to modernize outdated equipment. But the Russian market to attract funds, they do not want to, because of their very high cost of living and relatively modest amounts. Money is in the West. However, the Western auditing firms, conducting analysis of companies - energy, asks them a question: What you have with the environment? What to do with the ashes? And the energy only begin in a matter of urgency that something to think and look for exits. In the best case are the design work.
8. Monopoly in the regional market.
Lack of competition in principle, in terms of who to buy electricity or heat power industry does a kind of untouchable. For example, the ash dump is full, the local authorities to urgently allocate a new plot of land, but would not stop the company. Since the company threatens to stop this freezing of entire cities. On the ecology in this case, no one paid any attention. But already there, say, a workaround. This construction of autonomous ekoposelkov. And ashes can be disposed of in large quantities, and do not spend huge money in the supply of communications. More information on ekoposelku available upon request.
9. The main users.
The main consumers should be: the road sector, cement producers, manufacturers of concrete and mortar, the producers of dry mixes, the paint industry. In any case, these consumers want not just ash in bulk, and stable in quality and composition of the product. They buy because the sand on GOST.
Therefore, the state and government, as principal financiers road sector, (although from our taxes) to influence the road, so that the latter used the ash in the construction of new roads. Therefore it is necessary to state a definite policy in this direction. We must build new roads and build throughout the country, then the problem of what to do with the ashes will be solved, not once, but will. We need to create a tendency to increase consumption of ash carryover, it is necessary to move forward.
10. Already existing ash dumps. Unfortunately, the existing ash disposal technologies to process them there. At best, this ash can, and even necessary, be used to adjust the landscape, fill the ravines, then covering them with soil, so that at this point anything grew. Otherwise, it will be a dead area. In some countries in the West available method of disposal of ashes by suspending the mines left over after production of minerals, including, of course, coal.
In this case, the cost of transporting the ash will be comparable to the value of the contents of ash dumps. But do not run the disposal process just the resulting ash, ash dumps take up no sense.
Voice to the major aspects of disposal of ashes, we, at the same time, showed the way to solve them. Thus, we can only make the right decision.